The Three Macedonian Wars were fought by Philip V of Macedonia and his successor, Perseus, against Rome (215-205 BC, 200-197, 171-167). The first war, fought by Rome in the context of the Second Punic War, ended favourably for the Macedonians. Rome was victorious in the next two wars. The Macedonian forces were assisted by Carthage and the Seleucids, Rome by the Aetolian League and Pergamum.
After Rome's victory at the Battle of Pydna (168), Macedonian territory was divided into four republics.
Another conflict, fought in 149-148, may be considered a fourth Macedonian War; it resulted in a decisive Roman victory, and in its aftermath Macedonia became the empire's first province.